[60] The historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce, a minister in the Badoglio cabinet, called Umberto "entirely insignificant" as he found the crown prince to be shallow, vain, superficial, and of low intelligence, and alluding to his homosexuality stated his private life was "tainted by scandal". [92] De Gasperi and the other Christian Democratic leaders refused to take sides in the referendum, urging Christian Democratic voters to follow their consciences when it came time to vote. In addition he is weak and dissipated, with a degenerate and even oriental disposition inherited from his Balkan mother". [6], Umberto was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. He travelled extensively during his exile, and was often seen in Mexico visiting his daughter Maria Beatrice. Juli 1900 besuchte König Umberto die Stadt Monza. Tel. [62] The Catholic Church was in favor of Umberto, who unlike his father, was a sincere Catholic who it was believed would keep the Communists out of power. Baron Raffaele Guariglia, the Italian ambassador to Spain, contacted British diplomats to begin the negotiations. [13] Furthermore, it was widely noted in Italian elite circles that when Umberto and Marie José went on trips they always stayed in separate bedrooms. [89] On the day before the referendum, 1 June 1946, Pope Pius XII in a sermon on St. Peter's Square that was widely seen as endorsing Umberto said: "What is the problem? Beigesetzt wurde Umberto I. am 9. Dezember 1943) führte er freiwillig eine gefährliche Luftaufklärungsoperation durch, bei der er mit einem amerikanischen Piloten unter Beschuss der deutschen Luftabwehr über die deutsche Verteidigungslinie flog. To me it seems unworthy to try to unload the blame and errors of royalty on the people. Edwin Walker, Kommandeur des 3. Die Abtei Monte Cassino wurde im 6. [103] It is, however, unclear to what extent such rumours could be substantiated. [52] The Fascist newspapers reported in lucid, sensationalist, and in a decidedly homophobic way Umberto's various relationships with men as a way of discrediting him. Mit ihr bekam er einen Sohn, Thronfolger Viktor Emanuel (später König Viktor Emanuel III.). [102] Umberto rejected the advice that he should go to Naples, proclaim a rival government with the intention of starting a civil war in which the Army would presumably side with the House of Savoy, under the grounds that "My house united Italy. Februar 1944 wurde das Kloster in der fälschlichen Annahme, dass die Deutschen es als Beobachtungsposten nutzten, von den Alliierten bombardiert. Umberto, who considered himself a great fashionista, personally designed his bride's wedding dress and according to a popular rumor liked to wear his bride's wedding dress in the company of his gay friends. [56] Umberto together with the rest of his government spent of their time attempting to have humanitarian aid delivered. Juni 1946. [53] The other parties entered the cabinet on 22 April 1944 in order to preempt the Communists who joined the cabinet on 24 April. The problem is whether one or the other of those nations, of those two Latin sisters [elections were taking place in France on the same day] with several thousands of years of civilization will continue to learn against the solid rock of Christianity,...or on the contrary do they want to hand over the fate of their future to the impossible omnipotence of a material state without extraterrestrial ideals, without religion, and without God. [47] Kogan wrote Victor Emmanuel's flight from Rome was "bitterly remembered" in the Nord as an act of cowardice and betrayal by the king who abandoned his people to the German occupation without a fight. Ein wüster Narr, dess rohen Unverstand Prince Umberto wearing the uniform of Field Marshal, May 1944. [58] However, events had moved beyond Victor Emmanuel's ability to control. So ohne Grenzen hässlich ist die That, Juli 1900 in Monza), entstammte dem Hause Savoyen und war von 1878 bis 1900 König von Italien. Am 4. den Thron des Königreichs Sardinien und der erst fünfjährige Umberto wurde neuer Kronprinz. No single voice was raised in protest. [79] Umberto's interview caused some controversy as it was widely feared by the republican parties that a referendum would be rigged, especially in the south of Italy. [5] Like the other Savoyard princes before him, Umberto received a military education that was notably short on politics; Savoyard monarchs customarily excluded politics from their heirs' education with the expectation that they would learn about the art of politics when they inherited the throne. [95][101] In response, De Gasperi, who became acting president, replied in a press statement: "We must strive to understand the tragedy of someone who, after inheriting a military defeat and a disastrous complicity with dictatorship, tried hard in recent months to work with patience and good will towards a better future. [50], At a meeting of the leading politicians from the six revived political parties on 13 January 1944 in Bari, the demand was made that the ACC should force Victor Emmanuel to abdicate to "wash away the shame of the past". In an effort to repair the monarchy's image after the fall of Benito Mussolini's regime, Victor Emmanuel transferred his powers to Umberto in 1944 while retaining the title of king. ITALIANO - FRANCAIS - ENGLISH: Copyright©fondazionesavoia.org 2011 Im September 1870 eroberte das Königreich Italien den Kirchenstaat und Rom. [13] According to the film director and aristocrat Luchino Visconti's autobiography, he and Umberto had a homosexual relationship during their youth in the 1920s. Dressed in military uniform as First Marshal of the Empire, decorated with the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, he seemed more like a majordomo than a king. [81] In private, Umberto said he found Togliatti "to be a very congenial companion whose intelligence he respected, but was afraid that he suited his conversation according to his company". Im Zweiten Weltkrieg war sie eine Schlüsselstellung der deutschen Gustav-Linie. Dezember 1943) nahm er freiwillig an einer gefährlichen Luftaufklärungsoperation teil. This sentence caused a political uproar in Italy and a brief rift in Belgian-Italian relations, but in March 1932 Umberto asked for a pardon for de Rosa, who was released after having served slightly less than half his sentence and eventually killed in the Spanish Civil War. Juli 1900 in Monza), entstammte dem Hause Savoyen und war von 1878 bis 1900 König von Italien. Nach dem Tod seines Vaters am 9. [13] To make up for what he called the "devastating burden" of his life, Umberto spent much time praying for divine forgiveness for his homosexuality. [73], Umberto had ordered Badoglio to bring in members of the Committee of National Liberation (CLN) into his cabinet after the liberation of Rome to broaden his basis of support and ensure national unity by preventing the emergence of a rival government. Während des zweiten Weltkriegs war Umberto von Savoyen, Sohn von Viktor Emanuel III, Kronprinz von Italien. Die konservative Regierung reagierte mit der Beschneidung bürgerlicher Freiheiten. [13] Balbo, who opposed Mussolini's policy of allying Italy with Nazi Germany, warned the king that the Fascist secret police, the OVRA, had collected a file on Umberto's "pederasty" in order to blackmail him when he succeeded to the throne. In 1928, after the colonial authorities in Italian Somaliland built the Mogadishu Cathedral (Cattedrale di Mogadiscio), Umberto made his first publicized visit to Mogadishu, the territory's capital. In 1926, Mussolini passed a law allowing the Fascist Grand Council to decide the succession, though in practice he admitted the prince would succeed his father.[9]. gebürtig Prinz Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni von Savoyen (* 15. [67] During the German occupation, much of the Roman population had lived on the brink of starvation, young people had arrested on the streets to be taken off to work as slave labor in Germany while the Fascist Milizia together with the Wehrmacht and SS had committed numerous atrocities. It will not divide it". Daraufhin griff König Umberto entgegen den ihm von der Verfassung auferlegten Beschränkungen in die Regierung ein. [96] The socialist leader Sandro Pertini warned Umberto not to campaign in Milan as otherwise he would be lynched by the Milanese working class if he should appear in that city. Rom war zur offenen Stadt erklärt worden, was bedeutete, dass sie ohne Kampfhandlungen eingenommen werden konnte. [13] Count Galeazzo Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister, wrote in his diary after Marie José announced her second pregnancy: "I was left to understand the child will be his [Umberto's] without the intervention of doctors or syringes". Unterwegs war er in einer offenen Kutsche, als der Anarchist Gaetano Bresci aus der jubelnden Menge am Straßenrand viermal mit einem Revolver auf den König feuerte und ihn dreimal traf. Jahrhundert vom Heiligen Benedikt gestiftet. [56] As the Allies pushed northwards, aside from the damage caused by the fighting, the retreating Germans systematically destroyed all of the infrastructure, leading to a humanitarian disaster in the liberated parts. Female members of the Savoy family were not barred, except queens consort. [47] After the war, Umberto claimed that he wanted to join the partisans, and only his wartime duties prevented him from doing so. Durch diese entscheidende Schwächung Österreichs konnte sich sein Vater am 17. Her interlocutor from the Vatican was Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, a senior diplomat who later became Pope Paul VI. Januar 1878 bestieg Umberto als König von Italien und Herzog von Savoyen den Thron. Umberto di Savoia-Aosta SKH Prinz Umberto di Savoia-Aosta (* 7. Lucasbolwerk 10 (dt. Mai bis 12. As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth, since the Italian throne was limited to male descendants. : +31 (0)30 200 6834, Büro Belgien: Januar 1900 erließ Umberto I. anlässlich der Jahrhundertwende eine Amnestie für Verbrechen gegen die öffentliche Sicherheit und die Pressegesetze, für Vergehen gegen die Freiheit der Arbeit und für politische Straftaten.[3]. Dazu trug auch der Konflikt mit dem Papsttum bei, der nach der Auflösung des Kirchenstaates entflammt war. [91] The possibility of losing the referendum also led to the monarchists to appeal to Victor Emmanuel to finally abdicate. [64] The interview with The Times caused a storm of controversy in Italy with many Italians objecting to Umberto's claim that the responsibility for Italy entering the war rested with ordinary Italians and his apparent ignorance of the difficulties of holding public protests under the Fascist regime in 1940. Am Abend der Schlacht von Monte Lungo (8. [22] Victor Emmanuel simply did not believe that Marie José was competent to serve as a diplomat. Umberto was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Colonne du Congrès when, with a cry of 'Down with Mussolini! Badoglio went about the negotiations in a halfhearted way while allowing a massive number of German forces to enter Italy. Am 13. [22] On 29 October 1942, he was awarded the rank of Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia). [51] Since northern and central Italy were still occupied by Germany, it was finally decided at the Bari conference that the "institutional question" should be settled only once all of Italy was liberated, so all of the Italian people could have their say. In November 1942, as part of the Battle of Stalingrad, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, which saw the Soviets annihilate much of the Italian expeditionary force in Russia and encircle the German 6th Army. [84] As a gesture to promote national unity after the traumas of the war, in June 1945, Umberto appointed as prime minister a prominent guerrilla leader, Ferruccio Parri. As Prince of Piedmont, Umberto visited South America, between July and September 1924. [40] In the part of Italy under the control of the ACC, which issued orders to the Italian civil servants, a free press was allowed together with freedom of association and expression. [67], Various Italian politicians had attempted to persuade the Allies to revise the armistice of 1943 in Italy's favor under the grounds that there was a difference between the Fascist regime and the Italian people, and Umberto's statement that the House of Savoy bore no responsibility as he asserted that the Italian people had been of one mind with Mussolini in June 1940 was widely seen as weakening the case for revising the armistice. [62] Reflecting the tense "institutional question" of republic vs. monarchy, Umberto when swearing in the Bonomi cabinet allowed the ministers to take either their oaths to himself as the lieutenant general of the realm or to the Italian state; Bonomi himself chose to take his oath to Umberto while the rest of his cabinet chose to take their oaths only to the Italian state. – [87], Umberto earned widespread praise for his role in the following three years with the Italian historian Giuseppe Mammarella calling Umberto a man "whose Fascist past was less compromising" than that of Victor Emmanuel and who as lieutenant general showed certain "progressive" tendencies. [95] As a king, Umberto attempted to make wide use of the powers of royal pardon, trying to pardon thousands of criminals as a bid to win popularity (through Parliament blocked most of these pardons) while likewise making equally wide use of his power to grant titles of nobility as during his short reign he awarded thousands of titles of nobility to various local notables in bid to win the support of regional elites. [63] Both the British and Americans told Umberto that Ethiopia had its independence restored in 1941 and would not revert to Italian rule, while the Allies had promised that Yugoslavia would be restored to its pre-war frontiers after the war. März 1844 in Turin; 29. [4], Umberto was brought up in an authoritarian and militaristic household and expected to "show an exaggerated deference to his father"; both in private and public Umberto always had to get down on his knees and kiss his father's hand before being allowed to speak, even as an adult,[5] and he was expected to stand to attention and salute whenever his father entered a room. [97] The republicans charged that Umberto had done nothing to oppose Fascism with his major interest being his "glittering social life" in the high society of Rome and Turin, and that as a general knew that Italy was unready for war in 1940, but did not warn Mussolini against entering the war.[98]. Immer wieder besuchte der Monarch Berlin und Wien, um die guten Beziehungen zu Wilhelm II. [5] He made an exception when Adolf Hitler asked for a meeting. The conservative, rural Mezzogiorno (southern Italy) region voted solidly for the monarchy while the more urbanised and industrialised Nord (northern Italy) voted equally firmly for a republic. No demand was made for summoning parliament". One of these two alternatives shall occur according to whether the names of the champions or the destroyers of Christian civilization emerge victorious from the urns". [60] The British foreign secretary Anthony Eden wrote after meeting Umberto in a message to London that he was "the poorest of poor creatures", and his only qualification for the throne was that he had more charm than his charmless father. [65] In the same interview, Umberto stated that his hope was to make Italy a democracy by executing "the vastest education programme Italy has ever seen" to eliminate illiteracy in Italy once and for all.[65]. [7] In a 1959 interview, Umberto told the Italian newspaper La Settimana Incom Illustrata that in 1922 his father had felt that appointing Benito Mussolini prime minister was a "justifiable risk".[8]. [21] In June 1941, supported by his father, Umberto strongly lobbied to be given command of the Italian expeditionary force sent to the Soviet Union, saying that as a Catholic he fully supported Operation Barbarossa and wanted to do battle with the "godless communists". Die meisten von ihnen fielen in den Schlachten um Mignano und am Monte Lungo, entlang der Gotenstellung, als sie für die Befreiung Italiens. [17], Umberto shared his father's fears that Mussolini's policy of alliance with Germany was reckless and dangerous, but he made no serious move to oppose Italy becoming an Axis power. [12] At the Ciampino Airport in Rome, as Umberto boarded the airplane that was to take him to Lisbon, a carabiniere grabbed him by the hand and said: "Your Majesty, we will never forget you!”[12], As early as the 1920s, Mussolini had collected a dossier on Umberto's private life for purposes of blackmail. Traditionell durfte er keine Rolle in Staatsangelegenheiten spielen und entschied sich darum für eine Militärlaufbahn. März 1983 in Genf, Schweiz) war ein Angehöriger des Hauses Savoyen und 1946 der letzte König von Italien. [19] After the war, Umberto criticised the decision to enter the war, saying that Victor Emmanuel was too much under "Mussolini's spell" in June 1940 to oppose it. Während des zweiten Weltkriegs war Umberto von Savoyen, Sohn von Viktor Emanuel III, Kronprinz von Italien. [35] For the first time in his life, Umberto criticised his father, saying the King of Italy should not be fleeing Rome and only reluctantly obeyed his father's orders to go south with him towards the Allied lines. September 2020 um 11:40 Uhr bearbeitet. [35] In the fall of 1943, many Italian monarchists, like Benedetto Croce and Count Carlo Sforza, pressed for Victor Emmanuel III to abdicate and for Umberto to renounce his right to the succession in favor of his 6-year-old son, with a regency council to govern Italy as the best hope of saving the monarchy. [27] Mussolini had assured the king that the Regio Esercito could hold Sicily, and the poor performance of the Italian forces defending Sicily helped to persuade the king to finally dismiss Mussolini as Umberto informed his father that Il Duce had lied to him. I, an old monarchist, am therefore specially grieved when I see the monarchs themselves working to discredit the monarchy". [67] Croce wrote: "The Prince of Piedmont for twenty-two years has never shown any sign of acting independently of his father. A sign of how unpopular the House of Savoy had become was that on 28 March 1944, when the Italian Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti returned to Italy after a long exile in the Soviet Union, did not press for an immediate proclamation of a republic. Büro Niederlande: Während des Italienfeldzugs war Umberto oft an der Front. Als sich bei Villafranca eine italienische Niederlage abzeichnete, deckte Umberto mit seinen Einheiten den Rückzug des 3. [75] As Umberto continued as regent, he surprised many after his rocky start in the spring of 1944 with greater maturity and judgement than was expected. Traditionell durfte er keine Rolle in Staatsangelegenheiten spielen und entschied sich darum für eine Militärlaufbahn. Diese Gegensätze gipfelten im Bava-Beccaris-Massaker von Mailand. [57] The king bitterly told General Noel Mason-MacFarlane that his son was unqualified to rule, and that handing power over to him was equivalent to letting the Communists come to power. [81] Umberto spoke favorably of Togliatti as he was "clever, agreeable, and easy to discuss problems with". Umberto I. wandelte die Strafe in eine lebenslange Zuchthausstrafe um. [15] The Italian historian Giovanni Dall'Oroto wrote that Umberto liked Carnera without a shirt as he had a "physique fit for a king". [70] On 25 June 1944, the Bonomi government, which like the Badoglio government, ruled by royal degree as there was no parliament in Italy, had a royal degree issued in Umberto's name promising a Constituent Assembly for Italy after the war. [44] Since the war in which Mussolini had involved Italy in 1940 had become such an utter catastrophe for the Italian people by 1943, it had the effect of discrediting all those associated with the Fascist system. Während der Parade durch die Stadt wurden er und Ministerpräsident Benedetto Cairoli von dem Anarchisten Giovanni Passannante mit einem Säbel angegriffen. Letztendlich musste Österreich Venetien an Italien abtreten. Umberto I. [77][78], In October 1944, Umberto in an interview with the New York Times stated he favored a referendum to decide whether Italy was to be a republic vs. a monarchy, instead of having the "institutional question" decided by the national assembly that would write Italy's post-war constitution. We are finalizing the last technical elements in order to make sure to accommodate the large amount of requests we have received! Auch politisch erlangte Umberto zunehmend an Bedeutung. April 1868 schließlich seine Cousine ersten Grades, Margarethe von Genua (* 20. [62], Umberto's own relations with the Allies were strained by his insistence that after the war Italy should keep all of its colonial empire, including Ethiopia and the parts of Yugoslavia that Mussolini had annexed in 1941. Am 29. [106], As a young man, the epicene Umberto was mostly noted for his pursuit of handsome young officers. In a break with the traditions of the House of Savoy, Umberto was an intense Catholic, described by his biographer Domenico Bartoli as "almost to the point of fanaticism", but he was unable to resist what he called his "satanic" homosexual urges. Während des Italienfeldzugs war Umberto von Savoyen oft an der Front. But given the unwillingness of the king to abdicate, nothing came of it. [60] More damaging, Victor Emmanuel let it be known that he regretted handing over his powers to his son, and made clear that he felt that Umberto was unfit to succeed him as part of a bid to take back his lost powers. [2] During the crisis of May 1915, when Victor Emmanuel III decided to break the terms of the Triple Alliance by declaring war on the Austrian empire, he found himself in a quandary as the Italian Parliament was against declaring war; several times, the king discussed abdication with the throne to pass to the Duke of Aosta instead of Umberto. [10], Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Princess Marie José of Belgium (1906–2001), daughter of King Albert I of the Belgians and his wife, Queen Elisabeth, née Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria. [13] It is not clear how factual these rumors were, but the couple's unorthodox living arrangements—Umberto and Marie José lived apart and Umberto always announced in advance visits to his wife and was accompanied by a male friend—certainly inspired gossip. März 1844 in Turin als ältester Sohn des Kronprinzen Viktor Emanuel und dessen Ehefrau Adelheid von Österreich geboren. [62] Lucifero suggested reforms, which were implemented, such as reducing the number of aristocrats and generals at the court as while bringing in people from all the regions of Italy instead of just Piedmont to make the court more representative of Italy. [88] In April 1946, a public opinion poll of registered members of the conservative Christian Democratic party showed that 73% were republicans, a poll that caused immense panic in the monarchist camp. Welcome to the Europe Remembers platform and thank you for your interest in contributing to our awareness campaign. [4] Kritik rief die Verbindung mit Österreich-Ungarn hervor, da die Habsburger mit Südtirol und Istrien Gebiete besetzten, die Italien beanspruchte. [64] In the same interview, Umberto stated that he wanted post-war Italy to have a government "patterned on the British monarchy, and at the same time incorporating as much of America's political framework as possible". [67] Mack Smith cautioned that the friendly reception that Umberto received in Rome may have been due to him being a symbol of normalcy after the harsh German occupation as opposed to genuine affection for the prince. auch Humbert I. Die Suche nach einer standesgemäßen Ehefrau für Umberto gestaltete sich problematisch, da die alten europäischen Adelshäuser zunächst Abstand von einer Verbindung mit den „Emporkömmlingen“ nahmen. Dies wurde als Zeichen gewertet, dass Rom die neue Hauptstadt Italiens wurde. [54] The power of the Badoglio government, based in Salerno, were very limited, but the entry of the Communists, followed by representatives of the other anti-Fascist parties into the Badoglio cabinet in April 1944 marked the moment when as the British historian David Ellwood noted:"...anti-Fascism had compromised with the traditional state and the defenders of Fascism, and this compromise had been engineered by the Communist Party. Nationalistische Kreise sahen Italiens Einigung als noch nicht abgeschlossen an (Irredentismus); sie forderten Südtirol, Triest und Istrien von Österreich-Ungarn. Traditionell durfte er keine Rolle in Staatsangelegenheiten spielen und entschied sich darum für eine Militärlaufbahn. [12] On the campaign trail, Umberto was received with much more friendliness in the south of Italy than in the north. In der Schlacht bei Custozza befehligte Kronprinz Umberto am äußeren rechten Flügel die 16. [22] For all these reasons, the king vetoed Marie José's peace attempt. [22] More importantly, Victor Emmanuel was proudly misogynistic, holding women in complete contempt as the king believed it to be a scientific fact that the brains of women were significantly more underdeveloped than the brains of men. [42] Naples in 1944 was described as a city without cats or dogs which had all been eaten by the Neapolitans while much of the female population of Naples turned to prostitution in order to survive. This was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September 1904. [95] In northern Italy, which had been ruled by the Italian Social Republic, the charges of homosexuality made against Umberto had an impact on the voters, causing at least some conservatives to vote for the republic. Der Feldzug von Monte Cassino Der schwierige Weg nach Rom Der Kampf der Alliierten um Monte Cassino wurde von Januar bis Mai 1944 in vier Phasen ausgefochten. The American Commander nominated him for the Bronze Star … Er bekam von seinem Großvater den Titel eines Prinzen von Piedmont verliehen. August 1900 im Pantheon in Rom, an der Seite seines Vaters. [48] Only a minority of the partisan bands fighting for the CLN were monarchists, and none were led by a prince of the House of Savoy. © Public Domain, Prince Umberto inspects Italian troops, May 1944.