Ecce Homo, 1500 circa by lowering the horizon in … The most dramatic work of the fresco cycle was the work set in the worm's-eye view perspective, St. James Led to His Execution. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective, e.g. Mantegna’s art always retained echoes of Donatello’s sculpture in its hard, even metallic, surfaces, revealing an essentially sculptural approach that was somewhat softened only in the 1490s. NOW 50% OFF! In realtà tale identificazione contrasta con l'altro ritratto di Carlo: in quanto preposto della pieve di Prato è infatti ritratto nelle Esequie di santo Stefano ivi affrescate da Filippo Lippi entro il 1464. His Venetian connections were strengthened by his marriage in 1453 to Nicolosia, daughter of Jacopo Bellini and sister of Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, who became the leading family of painters in Venice during the following decade. Mantegna’s other principal works include the Ovetari Chapel frescoes (1448–55) in the Eremitani Church in Padua and the Triumph of Caesar (begun c. 1486), the pinnacle of his late style. Ritratto virile è un dipinto tempera su tavola (24,2x19 cm) attribuito ad Andrea Mantegna, databile al 1460 - 1470 circa e conservato nella National Gallery of Art di Washington D.C. Notizie storico critiche Unfortunately, all Mantegna’s frescoes in the Ovetari Chapel except The Assumption and The Martyrdom of St. Christopher were destroyed by a bomb during World War II. Cosimo I gli fece erigere nel Duomo di Prato la tomba dallo scultore Vincenzo Danti. AA.VV., Galleria degli Uffizi, collana I Grandi Musei del Mondo, Scala Group, Roma 2003. Like his famous compatriot Petrarca, Squarcione was something of a fanatic for ancient Rome: he traveled in Italy, and perhaps Greece, amassing antique statues, reliefs, vases, etc., forming a collection of such works, then making drawings from them himself, and throwing open his stores for others to study. (For an example of Mantegna's use of a lowered view point, see the image at right of Saints Peter and Paul; though much less dramatic in its perspective than the St. James picture, the San Zeno altarpiece was done shortly after the St. James cycle was finished, and uses many of the same techniques, including the classicizing architectural structure. l Ritratto di Carlo de' Medici è un dipinto, tempera su tavola (40,5x29,5 cm), di Andrea Mantegna, databile al 1466 circa e conservato nella Galleria degli Uffizi a Firenze. Increasing interest in and imitation of the culture of ancient Rome produced a climate in which feverish collecting of antiquities and ancient inscriptions—even if only in fragmentary form—flourished. Il meglio della Maremma | Case Vacanze | Podere Santa Pia, Century-old olive trees, between Podere Santa Pia and Cinigiano, Ritratto del cardinale Ludovico Trevisan, 1459-1460. L'uomo ha una carnagione scura ed indossa l'abito di protonotaro apostolico, carica che Carlo de' Medici ottenne effettivamente nel 1463. Il soggetto è ritratto di tre quarti, secondo una tipologia derivata dall'arte fiamminga, che in Italia si affermò gradualmente nella seconda metà del XV secolo, a fronte di una preferenza per i ritratti di profilo, ispirati alle effigi imperiali romane. The same year Mantegna was called, together with Nicolò Pizolo, to work with a large group of painters entrusted with the decoration of the Ovetari Chapel in the transept of the church of the Eremitani. Mantegna himself proudly called attention to his youthful ability in the painting’s inscription: “Andrea Mantegna from Padua, aged 17, painted this with his own hand, 1448.”. As many as 137 painters and pictorial students passed through Squarcione's school, which had been established towards 1440 and which became famous all over Italy. La probabile destinazione ufficiale spiega l'aura idealizzata della figura, priva di caratteri psicologici troppo individuali. Mantegna presumably saw Castagno’s frescoes of evangelists and saints in the church of San Zaccaria during a visit to Venice in 1447. He later claimed that Squarcione had profited from his work without paying the rights. Andrea Mantegna, (born 1431, Isola di Cartura [near Vicenza], Republic of Venice [Italy]—died September 13, 1506, Mantua), painter and engraver, the first fully Renaissance artist of northern Italy. You’ll need to know your Monet from your Manet—and a whole lot more—to make it through these questions from some of Britannica’s most popular quizzes. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The architectural backgrounds of pictures in the Ovetari Chapel, such as the St. James Before Herod and the St. James Led to Martyrdom, as well as of the two paintings of St. Sebastian in Vienna and Paris, were infused with a brooding harshness and severity against which the suffering of the Christian saints took on the added tragic implication of an impending cultural clash that was to separate and alienate the Christian and pagan worlds. Il Ritratto del cardinale Ludovico Trevisan è un dipinto tempera su tavola (44,8x33,9 cm) di Andrea Mantegna, databile al 1459-1460 e conservato nella Gemäldegalerie di Berlino. Squarcione taught him Latin and instructed him to study fragments of Roman sculpture. Cappella Ovetari, 1448-1457 He also led a workshop that was the leading producer of prints in Venice before 1500. L'incertezza dell'autografia (avvertita dalla Tietze-Conrat) è dovuta al cattivo stato di conservazione dell'opera per la consunzione del colore. La luce illumina parzialmente il volto di un uomo di mezza età, con occhi chiari di notevole verismo e intensità, modellando il volume della figura nello spazio. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective, e.g. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? L'incertezza dell'autografia (avvertita dalla Tietze-Conrat) è dovuta al cattivo stato di conservazione dell'opera per la consunzione del colore. Britannia Kids Holiday Bundle! Le poche notizie sulle sue origini le definiscono "d'umilissima stirpe". At the time, Mantegna was said to be a favorite pupil. Mantegna’s friendly relations with several humanists, antiquarians, and university professors are a matter of record, and hence he may be seen as one of the earliest Renaissance artists to fraternize from a position of intellectual equality with such men. La Camera degli Sposi (1465-1474) In 1448, at age 17, Mantegna disassociated himself from Squarcione’s guardianship to establish his own workshop in Padua, later claiming that Squarcione had profited considerably from his services without giving due recompense. That the Roman world still existed in Italy in ruins only served to increase the sudden sense of cultural loss that struck the 15th century. San Sebastiano, 1481 ), This is a part of the Wikipedia article used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). Bibliografia. In this way, Mantegna’s lifestyle contributed to the early 16th-century ideal of the artist as one so intimately familiar with antique history, mythology, and literature as to be able to draw easily from these highly respected sources. In the two scenes from the life of St. Christopher united in a single perspective on the right-hand wall, Mantegna extended his experiments in illusionism to the framing element by painting a highly realistic column on the front plane. The figures of Saints Peter, Paul, and Christopher in the apse, his earliest frescoes in this chapel, show to what extent he had already absorbed the monumental figure style of Tuscany. Though Mantegna might have been expected to join the Bellini studio, he preferred to pursue his independent practice in Padua, where the overwhelming artistic influence on him for the preceding few years had come from the wealth of sculpture produced by the Florentine Donatello for the high altar of San Antonio (finished by 1450). On the one hand, Mantegna’s search for accurate knowledge of Roman antiquity was reflected both in his depiction of specific monuments of Roman architecture and sculpture and in his creation of a vocabulary of antique forms that became the language of antique revival for more than a generation of northern Italian painters and sculptors after the mid-1450s. L'esame a raggi infrarossi ha rivelato un disegno preparatorio nel solo colletto: i tratti del volto furono forse abbozzati su disegni a matita eseguiti dal vero e poi trasferiti sulla tavola direttamente col pennello. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Galleria degli Uffizi | Una scheda di catalogo | Ritratto di Carlo de' Medici The award to Mantegna of the important commission for an altarpiece for the church of Santa Sofia (1448), now lost, demonstrates his precocity, since it was unusual for so young an artist to receive such a commission. Andrea Mantegna | Ritratto di Carlo de' Medici l Ritratto di Carlo de' Medici è un dipinto, tempera su tavola (40,5x29,5 cm), di Andrea Mantegna, databile al 1466 circa e conservato nella Galleria degli Uffizi a … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nella mostra iconografica gonzaghesca (1937), il personaggio era ancora identificato con Lodovico Gonzaga (1458-1511) figlio di Lodovico Marchese di Mantova. With the influx of scholars from all over Europe and Italy, an atmosphere of internationalism prevailed. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Andrea-Mantegna, Art Encyclopedia - Biography of Andrea Mantegna, National Gallery of Art - Biography of Andrea Mantegna, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Andrea Mantegna, Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Andrea Mantegna, Andrea Mantegna - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). His flinty, metallic landscapes and somewhat stony figures give evidence of a fundamentally sculptural approach to painting. The now censorious Squarcione carped about the earlier works of this series, illustrating the life of St James; he said the figures were like men of stone, and had better have been colored stone-color at once. From the time of the 14th-century poet Petrarch, Padua had experienced a rapidly growing revival of interest in antiquity, and many eminent humanists and Latin scholars had resided there. Il personaggio è stato a lungo identificato con un Gonzaga, ma già nel 1912 lo Schaeffer lo identificò del cardinal Carlo tramite la riproduzione dell'albero genealogico dei Medici inciso da Martino Rota nel 1589 ca.. La Borsook avanza l'ipotesi che il ritratto sia stato eseguito a Mantova durante il concilio del 1459 e non durante il soggiorno fiorentino del pittore e che questa opera sia servita per l'effige del cenotafio, e non il ritratto esistente negli affreschi di Filippino Lippi a Prato. L'Assunzione della Vergine, 1448-1457 Il personaggio è stato a lungo identificato con un Gonzaga, ma già nel 1912 lo Schaeffer lo identificò del cardinal Carlo tramite la riproduzione dell'albero genealogico dei Medici inciso da Martino Rota nel 1589 ca..>> Nel 1460 Mantegna si trasferì con tutta la famiglia a Mantova come pittore ufficiale di corte, ma anche come consigliere artistico e curatore delle raccolte d'arte. A teacher of painting and a collector of antiquities in Padua, Squarcione drew the cream of young local talent to his studio, which some of his protégés, such as Mantegna and the painter Marco Zoppo, later had cause to regret. However, at the age of seventeen, Mantegna separated himself from Squarcione. Squarcione, whose original vocation was tailoring, appears to have had a remarkable enthusiasm for ancient art, and a faculty for acting. His first work, now lost, was an altarpiece for the church of Santa Sofia in 1448. Rispetto alla solidità scultorea di opere come il Ritratto del cardinale Ludovico Trevisan, qui Mantegna usa toni più morbidi, anche se alla delicata armonia dei toni rosa e rossi fa da contrappunto la carnagione solcata dalle rughe, in un'espressione di serena concentrazione che evita lo sguardo dello spettatore. How much do you know about the visual arts? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Non si conoscono le vicende della commissione del dipinto e non è certa nemmeno l'identità del prelato ritratto. Andrea Mantegna (Italian: [anˈdrɛːa manˈteɲɲa]; c. 1431 – September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini. A lungo attribuito a Domenico Veneziano, fu il Ricci ad avanzare il nome del Mantegna. Padua was attractive for artists coming not only from Veneto but also from Tuscany, such as Paolo Uccello, Filippo Lippi and Donatello. Jacopo’s studies in perspective and drawings of fantastic architectural settings based on antique architecture would have interested his new son-in-law, who very likely had studied such drawings during his earlier visit to Venice. A lungo attribuito a Domenico Veneziano, fu il Ricci ad avanzare il nome del Mantegna. On the other hand, through a process of artistic synthesis, Mantegna sensed the forces and significances below the surfaces of Roman grandeur. Art in Tuscany | Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists | Andrea Mantegna Il Polittico di San Luca, 1453-1455 by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. All the while, he continued undertaking works on commission for which his pupils no less than himself were made available. In this way the sphere of intense ideality inhabited by the Virgin Mary is conjoined to the beholder’s own space by a brilliant combination of physical and optical devices. Da giovanissimo si sa che Andrea fece il guardiano di bestiame nella campagna attorno al suo paese . 63 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Visual Arts Quizzes. Elenco opere in ordine cronologico This extension of illusionistic principles to the elements surrounding a picture anticipates Mantegna’s San Zeno altarpiece, where the carved half columns of the frame abut the painted piers (vertical members) on the front plane of the picture space, so that the frame architecture serves as the exterior of the temple-pavilion architecture depicted in the painting. By his thoroughgoing description of antique forms coupled with an instinctive sense of the political realities that underlay their original creation, Mantegna lent great impetus to the antique revival movement at mid-century. Art in Tuscany | Italian Renaissance painting Luogo di nascita è Isola di Carturo (oggi denominata Isola Mantegna), un borgo nei pressi di Padova, ma che all'epoca era sotto il contado vicentino. Ritratto del cardinale Ludovico Trevisan, 1459-1460 The full text of the article is here →, Presentation of Christ in the temple, detail (Self-Portrait) - Andrea Mantegna, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Mantegna, Madonna and Child with Seraphim and Cherubim, Minerva Chasing the Vices from the Garden of Virtue, Madonna with St. Mary Magdalene and St. John the Baptist, Madonna with saints St. John theBaptist, St. Gregory I the Great, St. Benedict, The Martyrdom and transporting the body of Saint Christopher. Giovanni Bellini’s response to Mantegna’s style has been termed a dialogue, but Mantegna’s reaction to Donatello’s works might more aptly be called a struggle or even a dialectic. The perspective scheme with a viewpoint below the lower frame of the composition exaggerates the apparent height of the scene with respect to the viewer and lends an aspect of grandiose monumentality to the triumphal arch. Il Trionfo della Virtù, 1502 circa, Giorgio Vasari | Le vite | Andrea Mantegna. In Mantegna’s century, overcoming the experience of alienation from antiquity through the study and revitalization of its architectural and sculptural vocabulary was an obsessive theme. Mantegna’s extraordinary native abilities were recognized early. Giorgio Vasari | Le vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri | Andrea Mantegna The master also preferred forced perspective, the lingering results of which may account for some of Mantegna's later innovations. The experience of the Paduan milieu was thus decisive for the formation of Mantegna’s attitude toward the Classical world, which may perhaps be characterized best as double faceted. Andrea Mantegna, (born 1431, Isola di Cartura [near Vicenza], Republic of Venice [Italy]—died September 13, 1506, Mantua), painter and engraver, the first fully Renaissance artist of northern Italy. Tatjana Pauli, Mantegna, serie Art Book, Leonardo Arte, Milano 2001. This series was almost entirely lost in the 1944 allied bombings of Padua. Presentazione al Tempio, 1455 La figura tarchiata in abito rosso che compare a destra del catafalco del santo, indicata da Vasari, non assomiglia per niente al ritratto di Mantegna, mentre più simile è l'uomo ritratto immediatamente alle sue spalle. Padua was the first centre of humanism in northern Italy, the home of a great university (founded in 1222), and renowned as a centre for the study of medicine, philosophy, and mathematics. Orazione nell'orto, 1458-60 circa The environment of the city of Padua, where Mantegna lived during the major formative years of his life (from about age 10 to about age 30), exerted a strong influence on his interests, ideas, painting style, and concept of himself. Mantegna was born in Isola di Carturo, Republic of Venice close to Padua (now Italy), second son of a carpenter, Biagio. At the age of eleven he became the apprentice of Francesco Squarcione, Paduan painter. Andrea Mantegna (UK: / m æ n ˈ t ɛ n j ə /, US: / m ɑː n ˈ t eɪ n j ə /, Italian: [anˈdrɛːa manˈteɲɲa]; c. 1431 – September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective, e.g. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Carlo de' Medici figlio naturale di Cosimo il Vecchio, che nei tratti fisognomici tradisce la origine circassa della madre, fu protonotaio apostolico e preposto di Prato. The frame and painted architecture of Mantegna’s San Zeno altarpiece (1459) answered the challenge posed by Donatello’s Padua altar, for example. Andrea Mantegna (Italian: [anˈdrɛːa manˈteɲɲa]; c. 1431 – September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini. ISBN 9788883101878 by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. During the following year (1449), Mantegna worked on the fresco decoration of the Ovetari Chapel in the Eremitani Church in Padua. Parnaso, 1497 Ritratto di Carlo de' Medici, 1466 circa Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the St. James Led to Martyrdom in the lowest row on the left wall, painted sometime between 1453 and 1455, both Mantegna’s mastery of di sotto in su (from below to above) perspective and his use of archaeologically correct details of Roman architecture are already apparent. Le ipotesi più suffragate oggi identificano il soggetto del dipinto in Carlo de' Medici, figlio naturale di Cosimo il Vecchio e di una schiava circassa, la cui carnagione scura sarebbe l'indizio più evidente. After a series of coincidences, Mantegna finished most of the work alone, though Ansuino, who collaborated with Mantegna in the Ovetari Chapel, brought his style in the Forlì school of painting. He was the second son of a woodworker but was legally adopted by Francesco Squarcione by the time he was 10 years old and possibly even earlier. Omissions? Andrea Mantegna nacque nel 1431 da Biagio, falegname. Mantegna’s starting point had been a still earlier form of antique revival—the monumental Tuscan figure style brought to Venice by the Florentine painter Andrea del Castagno in 1442. His best known surviving work is the Camera degli Sposi (“Room of the Bride and Groom”), or Camera Picta (“Painted Room”) (1474), in the Palazzo Ducale of Mantua, for which he developed a self-consistent illusion of a total environment. Grande cura è riposta invece nella descrizione degli attributi legati allo status e al ruolo pubblico del soggetto, quali l'abito vermiglio di tessuto pesante e il cappello a cuffia. It is probable, however, that before this time some of the pupils of Squarcione, including Mantegna, had already begun the series of frescoes in the chapel of S. Cristoforo, in the church of Sant'Agostino degli Eremitani, today considered his masterpiece. Mantegna's early career was shaped indeed by impressions of Florentine works. Updates? The meticulously detailed column divides the scene in two while appearing to exist in a realm totally apart from the pictorial space, a realm shared with the observer.